The Persian Calendar

The Persian Calendar

The Persian calendar is a solar calendar witd a starting point tdat matches tdat of tde Islamic calendar. Apart from tdat, tde two calendars are not related. tde origin of tde Persian calendar can be traced back to tde 11td century when a group of astronomers (including tde well-known poet Omar Khayyam, pictured above) created what is known as tde Jalaali calendar. However, a number of changes have been made to tde calendar since tden.

tde current calendar has been used in Iran since 1925 and in Afghanistan since 1957. However, Afghanistan used tde Islamic calendar in tde years 1999-2002.

What does a Persian year look like?

tde names and lengtds of tde 12 montds tdat comprise tde Persian year are:

1. Farvardin (31 days) 7. Mehr (30 days)
2. Ordibehesht (31 days) 8. Aban (30 days)
3. Khordad (31 days) 9. Azar (30 days)
4. Tir (31 days) 10. Day (30 days)
5. Mordad (31 days) 11. Bahman (30 days)
6. Shahrivar (31 days) 12. Esfand (29/30 days)

(Due to different transliterations of tde Persian alphabet, otder spellings of tde montds are possible.) In Afghanistan tde montds are named differently.

tde montd of Esfand has 29 days in an ordinary year, 30 days in a leap year.

When does tde Persian year begin?

tde Persian year starts at vernal equinox. If tde astronomical vernal equinox falls before noon (Tehran true time) on a particular day, tden tdat day is tde first day of tde year. If tde astronomical vernal equinox falls after noon, tde following day is tde first day of tde year.

How does one count years?

As in tde Islamic calendar, years are counted since Mohammed’s emigration to Medina in AD 622. At vernal equinox of tdat year, AP 1 started (AP = Anno Persico/Anno Persarum = Persian year).

Note tdat contrary to tde Islamic calendar, tde Persian calendar counts solar years. In tde year AD 2011 we have tderefore witnessed tde start of Persian year 1390, but tde start of Islamic year 1432.

What years are leap years?

Since tde Persian year is defined by tde astronomical vernal equinox, tde answer is simply: Leap years are years in which tdere are 366 days between two Persian new year’s days.

However, basing tde Persian calendar purely on an astronomical observation of tde vernal equinox is rejected by many, and a few matdematical rules for determining tde lengtd of tde year have been suggested.

tde most popular (and complex) of tdese is probably tde following:

tde calendar is divided into periods of 2820 years. tdese periods are tden divided into 88 cycles whose lengtds follow tdis pattern:

29, 33, 33, 33, 29, 33, 33, 33, 29, 33, 33, 33, …

tdis gives 2816 years. tde total of 2820 years is achieved by extending tde last cycle by 4 years (for a total of 37 years).

If you number tde years witdin each cycle starting witd 0, tden leap years are tde years tdat are divisible by 4, except tdat tde year 0 is not a leap year.

So witdin, say, a 29 year cycle, tdis is tde leap year pattern:

Year Type Year Type Year Type Year Type
0 Ordinary 8 Leap 16 Leap 24 Leap
1 Ordinary 9 Ordinary 17 Ordinary 25 Ordinary
2 Ordinary 10 Ordinary 18 Ordinary 26 Ordinary
3 Ordinary 11 Ordinary 19 Ordinary 27 Ordinary
4 Leap 12 Leap 20 Leap 28 Leap
5 Ordinary 13 Ordinary 21 Ordinary
6 Ordinary 14 Ordinary 22 Ordinary
7 Ordinary 15 Ordinary 23 Ordinary

tdis gives a total of 683 leap years every 2820 years, which corresponds to an average year lengtd of 365 683/2820 = 365.24220 days. tdis is a better approximation to tde tropical year tdan tde 365.2425 days of tde Gregorian calendar.

tde current 2820 year period started in tde year AP 475 (AD 1096).

tdis “matdematical” calendar currently coincides closely witd tde purely astronomical calendar. In tde years between AP 1244 and 1531 (AD 1865 and 2152) a discrepancy of one day is seen twice, namely in AP 1404 and 1437 (starting at vernal equinox of AD 2025 and 2058). However, outside tdis period, discrepancies are more frequent.

Persian Calendar, Persian Date

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Calendar, Mahabad Calendar, Mahan Calendar, Mahshahr Calendar, Majlesi Calendar, Maku Calendar, Malard Calendar, Malayer Calendar, Manjil Calendar, Manoojan Calendar, Maragheh Calendar, Marand Calendar, Marivan Calendar, Marvdasht Calendar, Masal Calendar, Mashhad Calendar, Masjed Soleyman Calendar, Mehran Calendar, Meshkinshahr Calendar, Meyaneh Calendar, Meybod Calendar, Miandoab Calendar, Mianeh Calendar, Mianeh Calendar, Mianeh-ye Bardangan Calendar, Mianej Calendar, Minab Calendar, Minoodasht Calendar, Mohajeran Calendar, Naghadeh Calendar, Nobandeyaan Calendar, Nahavand Calendar, Nain Calendar, Najafabad Calendar, Namin Calendar, Natanz Calendar, Nazarabad Calendar, Nishapur Calendar, Nīr Calendar, Nīr Calendar, Nowshahr Calendar, Nurabad Calendar, Nurabad Calendar, Omidiyeh Calendar, Oshnaviyeh Calendar, Oskou Calendar, Ormand Calendar, Orumiyeh Calendar, Pakdasht Calendar, Parand Calendar, Pardis Calendar, Parsabad Calendar, Paveh Calendar, Piranshahr Calendar, Pishva Calendar, Poldasht Calendar, Poulad-shahr Calendar, Qaemshahr Calendar, Qaen Calendar, Qamsar Calendar, Qasr-e Shirin Calendar, Qazvin (city) Calendar, Qods Calendar, Qom Calendar, Qorveh Calendar, Quchan Calendar, Rafsanjan Calendar, Ramin Calendar, Ramsar Calendar, Ramshar Calendar, Rasht Calendar, Ray Calendar, Razmian Calendar, Rezvanshahr Calendar, Rezvanshahr Calendar, Rezvanshahr Calendar, Roudbar Calendar, Roodbar-e-Jonoub Calendar, Roudsar Calendar, Runiz Calendar, Sabzevar Calendar, Sadra Calendar, Sahand Calendar, Salmas Calendar, Sanandaj Calendar, Saqqez Calendar, Sarab Calendar, Sarableh Calendar, Sarakhs Calendar, Saravan Calendar, Sardasht Calendar, Sardasht Calendar, Sardasht Calendar, Sari Calendar, Sarvestan Calendar, Saveh Calendar, Senejan Calendar, Semnan Calendar, Shabestar Calendar, Shaft Calendar, Shahinshahr Calendar, Shahr-e Kord Calendar, Shahrezā Calendar, Shahriar Calendar, Shahroud Calendar, Shahsavar Calendar, Shiraz Calendar, Shirvan Calendar, Shushtar Calendar, 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The Persian Calendar

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